Tuesday, August 25, 2020

buy custom Fractures and Myopathy essay

purchase custom Fractures and Myopathy exposition A break might be characterized as a split or break in the bone. Breaks result from unreasonable weight lifted up on the bone surface or because of debilitating of the bones because of an ailment, additionally called osteoporosis (Cavendish, 2008). For the most part, cracks can be arranged as shut or straightforward where the skin is as yet unblemished with the bone, or as open or compound in which there are wounds inside the break or where it is presented to the encompassing, in this manner can be effectively tainted. Breaks can be finished, where broken bones are totally isolated, or deficient (greenstick) where broken bones are not totally isolated. Affected break is the place the bone-closes have been drawn together, separation cracks result when a bit of the bone is pulled off by a ligament while pathologic breaks result from minor wounds to bones previously debilitated by ailments. Breaks may prompt extreme loss of blood through dying, swellings and tingling around the influenced regions and generally body shortcoming. Bone cracks are described by extraordinary torment because of breaking of the periosteum, edema of delicate tissues brought about by seeping from periosteal veins which brings out weight and agony, muscle fits and growing at the break site. A few people additionally experience loss of motion or irritation in regions underneath the break. Shortcoming and powerlessness to manage weight may likewise demonstrate the nearness of a bone fracure (Egol, Koval Zuckerman, 2010). Determination of cracks includes surveying the historical backdrop of the break: how, when, where and why it happened. This is frequently trailed by torment control and minor tasks. Treatment incorporate First Aid to forestall dying, covering open injuries, X-Rays of influenced regions, move of uprooted bones, and sedation treatment for extreme breaks, medical procedure and active recuperation to fix cracks. Agony relievers and muscle relaxants are likewise regulated. Individuals ought to maintain a strategic distance from hazardous exercises and wild practices that may expand odds of mishaps. One should wear defensive garments when engaged with presentation exercises, for example, development and sports. Those with cracks should look for clinical consideration quickly and take a greater amount of Vitamin C and Zinc enhancements to advance recuperating of the breaks. Myopathy Myopathy alludes to a condition wherein muscles of the body neglect to work appropriately because of shortcomings in their filaments and strands. Myopathy is principally connected with body muscles as it were. Different types of myopathy may incorporate muscle fits and spasms (Lawrence, 2011). Myopathy is brought about by muscle debilitating, fits or tetany and aggravations of the muscles. It creates because of hereditary qualities (acquired) or procured states of the muuscles that may result from weariness, body lack of hydration or firmness. Vinken propose that myopathy typically takes two structures; acquired, for example, nemaline, innate and mitochondrial Myopathy, and obtained myopathy for instance polymyositis and dermatomyositis (Vinken, 1992). Myopathy causes body shortcoming, aggravation of muscles, brokenness of the metabolic framework and muscle inflexibility in this manner preventing free development. In correlation, gained myopathy settle speedier than acquired myopathy. They likewise show fluctuated side effects in various people. Myopathy is for the most part portrayed by shortcoming of muscles, general body shortcoming and dormancy and here and there muscle torments. In uncommon cases, an individual may pass out stained pee. Treatment of myopathy begins by experiencing analysis testing, after which sedate treatment, back rub and needle therapy and yoga may follow. Non-intrusive treatment and minor medical procedure might be utilized too. Agony the board is typically fundamental. Full clinical consideration may include organization of invulnerable suppressive medications that ease irritation, for instance, Trexall (Kagen, 2009). Individuals who are encountering muscle spasms and irritations should look for clinical consideration at the earliest opportunity. It is fitting to do normal activities to expand muscle adaptability and blood dissemination inside the body, muscles and nerves. Purchase custom Fractures and Myopathy article

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Is Neoliberalism in crisis today Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Is Neoliberalism in emergency today - Essay Example At the end of the day, a change towards a neo-changed world is occurring. Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher had embraced such a methodology a lot prior as a way to monetary development and government assistance of the residents. Be that as it may, late occasions like the worldwide downturn have achieved questions with respect to the drawn out impacts of neo-progressivism. This paper takes a gander at the effect of neo-progression concerning hierarchical change at the full scale and small scale levels on the planet today. It will audit whether this idea is pertinent and whether its future as a guardian angel of humankind is in danger. The paper will initially audit the idea of hierarchical change at smaller scale and miniaturized scale levels. It will at that point talk about the idea of neo-radicalism and afterward audit its effect on hierarchical change. Change in associations has been concentrated earnestly by numerous specialists from differing fields, for example, the executives, brain science, humanities and human science. Noticeable among them are Kurt Lewin and John Kotter. This is the thing that creators from the field of the board need to state about the two specialists referenced previously. Richard Swanson, a prominent expert on HR advancement says that â€Å"The exemplary metatheory of progress is Kurt Lewin’s (1951) field hypothesis. This hypothesis stays at the center of most change theories† (Swanson and Holton 2001, p. 137). About Kotter, creators George Manning and Kent Curtis has this to state - â€Å"There are numerous models for understanding hierarchical change. A standout amongst other is an eight-phase process gave by John Kotter of Harvard University† (Manning and Curtis 2002, p. 281). These two speculations separated from those propounded by others structure a system for executing hierarchical change. In any case, what is significant in this setting is the effect of neo-radicalism on hierarchical change. As referenced before, the business world is evolving

Thursday, August 6, 2020

Book Review Barrons Writing for the TOEFL iBT, 6th ed.

Book Review Barrons Writing for the TOEFL iBT, 6th ed. My Grade for Writing for the TOEFL iBT: FI love the idea of a full-length TOEFL writing textbook, so I must acknowledge the effort that Barrons and author Lin Lougheed put into this book. Sadly, Writing for the TOEFL is a terrible book.Like the team from Kaplan, the folks at Barrons seem incapable of writing proper integrated writing questions. This book contains page after page after page of terrible integrated writing practice questions. The questions in the model tests at the back of the book are bad as well.It shouldnt be hard for authors to realize that the integrated writing question always includes an article with four paragraphs, paired with a lecture that when transcribed contains four matching paragraphs, each of which casts doubt on a specific point from the reading. Likewise, it shouldnt be too hard to notice that the specific counterpoints from the lecture are presented in the same order as the reading points. Just sitting for the TOEFL a few dozen times will teach them that.I just dont know how major publishers mess this up, since they can afford to let their authors take the test as many times as they want. Barrons has been publishing this book for 17 years, and they still havent figured it out. The integrated writing questions all have articles that consist of four paragraphs and three points. Frustratingly, though, the matching lectures often dont include specific counterpoints, and they arent broken down into a four paragraph structure.The lectures here are merely descriptive. Most of the time they describe the topic at hand, without challenging the specific points made in the reading. This is similar to the flawed practice test contained in the Official Guide, which the author of this text might have leaned too heavily on.For instance, Model Test 4 (page 169) presents three details related to the bubonic plague of the 1300s. They are: (i) it was transmitted starting in China, (ii) Italian ships spread it to Europe, and (iii) social order brok e down because of it. The lecturer (page 309), though, spends about 2/3 of his time talking about how ancient Egyptians also suffered from plague, before talking about how people in the modern world also suffer from plague. The matching point/counterpoint style of the real TOEFL is completely missing.The other error that experienced teachers will notice is that the article in this case lacks an overall argument. It merely describes the plague. A proper question would make some argument about the plague. For instance, the introduction would establish that the main argument is that the plague started in China. Each body paragraph, then, would present one piece of evidence in favor of this. The matching lecture would suggest that the plague did not start in China, and would challenge each of the authors points in turn.Model test 2 (page 169) is pretty much the same. It lacks an argument, and presents three details about animal intelligence. The lecturer babbles on about mirrors for the full three minutes.Model test 1 (page 167) also lacks an overall argument. Dealing with the effects of technology on learning, body paragraphs 1 and 3 suggest that it is beneficial, while body paragraph 2 suggests that it is not helping. The lecture, meanwhile, presents one story of success and one story of failure.It must be said that model test 3 (page 171) is almost a perfect TOEFL integrated writing question. It does everything right it presents a clear argument that Shakespeare did not write his famous plays, while the lecturer challenges each of these in turn. Evidently Barrons is capable of coming up with proper questions, but are unaware of the fact that this structure is used every time the test is offered.As far as the independent writing question goes, Barrons has again leaned too heavily on the Official Guide. Indeed, theyve pretty much reproduced the entire list of sample independent questions from that guide. As Ive noted in an earlier post, though, that list has pro blems. This does lead to the books single strong point a whopping 144 sample essays at the back of the book which answer these questions. These essays may be responding to slightly faulty questions and they dont really utilize the structure I prefer, but they are a wonderful source of ideas and inspiration for students who might be struggling to come up with content on test day. With a proper warning from a teacher to ignore the rest of the book this could be a helpful resource for students.That said, this highlight isnt enough to save this faulty book. I cant really recommend it.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Role Of Happiness On Kant s And Mill s Ethics

The Role of Happiness in Kant s and Mill s Ethics Corey Guitard (0241740) Introduction to Ethics November 18th, 2015 Philosophy 2701 Dr. Rupen Majithia Words: Immanuel Kant refers to happiness as contentment (Kant, ) whereas John Stuart Mill refers to it as the pursuit of pleasure and the absence of pain (Mill, p.7). Kant does not base his ethics on happiness. Instead, he argues that morality is based on our duty as a human (Kant, ). To do what is right for Kant is to do what is instinctually moral without giving thought to the overall happiness. On the other hand, Mill does in fact use happiness as the bases for his ethics. He proposes that actions are right if they promote overall happiness and wrong if they promote the opposite of happiness (Mill, ). In this paper, it will be argued that Mill s views on happiness are more reasonable than those of Kant s because happiness should be the base for ethics. Kant does not believe that happiness is important enough to base his ethics on. For him, happiness is not pleasure. It is not the virtuous or joyful feeling associated with living a moral life. It is simply the satisfaction with one s con dition. In this sense, happiness is put aside by Kant to focus on our duty as a human (Kant, ). He places emphasis on the respect we have for others in the way we live our lives. Everyone deserves this respect by virtue of being human. If everyone refused to use people as a means for their own personal gain and rather as ends out ofShow MoreRelated Ethical and Philosophical Questions about Value and Obligation977 Words   |  4 PagesQuestions about Value and Obligation I Recall the distinction between metaethics and normative ethics. Normative ethics deals with substantial ethical issues, such as, What is intrinsically good? What are our moral obligations? Metaethics deals with philosophical issues about ethics: What is value or moral obligation? Are there ethical facts? What sort of objectivity is possible in ethics? How can we have ethical knowledge? Recall, also, the fundamental dilemma of metaethics. EitherRead MoreJohn Stuart Mill And Immanuel Kant1387 Words   |  6 PagesThe concept of happiness is one that has been explored and debated by many different philosophers. Two of these philosophers are John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant. Mill, in Utilitarianism defines happiness as pleasure without pain. He builds upon this idea of happiness when establishing his moral philosophy, stating that the action that would bring about the maximum amount of happiness is the most moral action. On the other hand, Kant establishes happiness as well-being and a satisfaction with one’sRead MoreComparing Aristotle And John Stuart Mill1130 Words   |  5 PagesKearney PHIL 231: Ethics 28 April 2015 Essay 2 Comparisons on Pleasure in Morality The role of pleasure in morality has been examined thoroughly throughout the beginning of philosophy and continues to be a questionable issue. With these in-depth examinations, some similar outlooks as well as differing views have been recorded. Many philosophers have dissected this important topic, however I intend to concentrate of the famous works of Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill. After meticulouslyRead More Immanuel Kants Ethics Of Pure Duty and John Stuart Mills Utilitarian Ethics Of Justice2753 Words   |  12 PagesImmanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill are philosophers who addressed the issues of morality in terms of how moral traditions are formed. Immanuel Kant has presented one viewpoint in The Grounding For The Metaphysics of Morals that is founded on his belief that the worth of man is inherent in his ability to reason. John Stuart Mill holds another opinion as presented in the book, Utilitarianism that is seemingly in contention with the thoughts of Ka nt. What is most distinctive about the ethics of moralityRead MoreThe Ethical Concepts Of Kantian Ethics Essay1043 Words   |  5 PagesConsequences Introduction The philosophy of Kant has become a turning point in the development of the Western thinking and worldview. His innovative and progressive ideas have strongly contributed to the formation of a new paradigm of the universe and role of humans in it. A great role in Kant’s studies belongs to the analysis of ethics, morality and law as the main regulators of the human behavior in the society Kant is known as the founder of the deontological ethics (Kantianism), which presents a rationalRead MoreUtilitarianism : A Philosophical Concept That Was Taught By John Stuart Mill931 Words   |  4 PagesJoseph Morrone Dr. Kaspar Ethics 13 March 2016 Utilitarianism is a philosophical concept that was taught by John Stuart Mill in which he explains that every person always act and make decisions that maximize their utility. Mill gave a clear explanation that utilitarian often aim at maximizing utility because it is morally right. All actions that individuals perform in their own initiatives are to make their lives better in the long run. This essay is aimed at explaining the way in which utilitarianismRead MoreMoral Judgements Are Morally Wrong?2025 Words   |  9 PagesEthics is an area of philosophy that deals with what is morally right and what is morally wrong behavior. Inside of ethics, there are two major views of thinking when making choices about different principles. Deontology is the idea that choices should be made based on obeying moral norms. Moral judgements are contained in an act alone. A deontologist would decide on the moral worth of an action based on the intention of the action. Immanuel Kant, an eighteenth century German philosopher, is consideredRead MoreEssay Kant vs. Mill: Human Rights and Utilitarianism1729 Words   |  7 Pagesincluding philosophical theories in the past. This paper looks at the theories of two philosophers, Emmanuel Kant and John Stuart Mills, and how their teachings can be used to explain the sources of human rights. Kant’s moral philosophy is very direct in its justification of human rights, especially the ideals of moral autonomy and equality as applied to rational human beings. John Stuart Mills’ theory of utilitarianism also forms a solid basis for human rights, especially his belief that utility isRead MoreKantian Ethics And Utilitarianism Are At Variance On Issues Of Morality1992 Words   |  8 PagesKantian ethics and utilitarianism are at variance on issues of morality and do share a similar end goal on what general ethical outcomes in solving the ills of the world. These two philosophical thoughts examine nature of morality with varian t theories. As Kantian ethics are based on the theories propagated by German philosopher Immanuel Kant, utilitarianism on the other hand as has been projected by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mills and many others who share in this school of thought. In thisRead MoreCritically Evaluate Medical Ethics And Legal Issues1263 Words   |  6 PagesCritically evaluate medical ethics and legal issues Introduction Medical ethics and legal issues have been a key topic in medical field for many years now. It is important for medical professionals to understand the importance of the way we care for patients, it is therefore important to be knowledgeable and aware of the medical ethics and legal issues that govern good patient care. Health care professionals must make decisions based on ethical and legal issues to performance their regular duties

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

What Is EPS or Expanded Polystyrene

EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) or as many know by The Dow Chemical Companys trademarked name, STYROFOAM, is an extremely lightweight product that is made of expanded polystyrene beads. Originally discovered by Eduard Simon in 1839 in Germany by accident, EPS foam is more than 95% air and only about 5% plastic. Small solid plastic particles of polystyrene are made from the monomer styrene. Polystyrene is normally a solid thermoplastic at room temperature that can be melted at a higher temperature and re-solidified for desired applications. The expanded version of polystyrene is about forty times the volume of the original polystyrene granule. Uses of Polystyrene Polystyrene foams are used for a variety of applications because of its excellent set of properties including good thermal insulation, good damping properties and being extremely light weight. From being used as building materials to white foam packaging, expanded polystyrene has a wide range of end-use applications. In fact, many surfboards now use EPS as the foam core. Building and Construction EPS is inert in nature and therefore does not result in any chemical reactions. Since it will not appeal to any pests, it can be used easily in the construction industry. It is also closed cell, so when used as a core material it will absorb little water and in return, not promote mold or rotting. EPS is durable, strong as well as lightweight and can be used as insulated panel systems for facades, walls, roofs and floors in buildings, as  flotation  material in the construction of marinas and pontoons and as a lightweight fill in road and railway construction. Packaging EPS has shock absorbing properties making it ideal for storing and transporting fragile items such as wines, chemicals, electronic equipment, and pharmaceutical products. Its thermal insulation and moisture resistant properties are perfect for packaging cooked food as well as perishable items such as seafood, fruit, and vegetables. Other Uses EPS can be used in the manufacture of sliders, model planes, and even surfboards because of its positive strength to weight ratio. The strength of EPS along with its shock absorbing properties makes it effective for use in children’s seats and cycling helmets. It is also compression resistant, meaning that EPS is ideal for stacking packaging goods. EPS also has applications in horticulture in seedling trays to promote aeration of the soil. Why Is EPS Advantageous? High thermal insulationResistant to MoistureExtremely durableEasily recyclableVersatile in strengthEasily laminated with epoxy resinManufactured into different shapes, sizes, and compression materialsLightweight and portableHigh shock absorbency characteristicsCompression resistantBranded by printing or adhesive labeling. Drawbacks of EPS Not resistant to organic solventsCannot be used in combination with MPVC hydro-insulation foilsPreviously, EPS was made from Chlorofluorocarbons which damaged the ozone layerFlammable if oil paintedHealth concerns with styrene chemicals seeping into hot beverages or food placed in EPS cups Recycling EPS EPS is completely recyclable as it will become polystyrene plastic when recycled. With the highest recycling rates for any plastic and accounting for a non-substantial portion of municipal waste, expanded polystyrene is an environmentally friendly polymer. The EPS industry encourages recycling of packaging material and many large companies are successfully collecting and recycling the EPS. EPS can be recycled in many different ways such as thermal densification and compression. It can be reused in non-foam applications, lightweight concrete, building products and remolded back into EPS foam. Future of EPS With the considerable number of applications, EPS is being used as a result of its excellent range of properties, the future of the EPS industry is bright. EPS is a cost-effective and friendly polymer best for insulation and packaging purposes.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Following Assignment Free Essays

Please answer the following questions, you can upload your answers In a MS Word flee, or Word file. Answer all the questions, and upload the answers back before Sunday March 31, 2013 (before 11: 55 pm): 1 . Differentiate between guided media and unguided media 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Following Assignment or any similar topic only for you Order Now What are three important characteristics of a periodic signal 3. Define fundamental frequency 4. What Is attenuation? 5. Describe the components of optical fiber cable. 6. Indicate some significant differences between broadcast radio and microwave. 7. What Is the difference between diffraction and scattering? . Last and briefly define important factors that can be used in evaluating or comparing the various digital-to- digital encoding techniques. 9. What function does a modem perform? 10. What Is JAM? Differentiate between guided media and unguided media Gulled media Is that where we use any path for communication like cables (coaxial, fiber optic, twisted pair) etc. Unguided media is also called wireless where not any physical path is used for transmission. What are three important characteristics of a periodic signal? Period (or frequency), amplitude and phase. All periodic signals can be broken down into other signals†¦ Cost commonly Selene/coolness waves, but there are others too. These components will each have their own frequency, amplitude and phase that combine into the original signal. The strange part of the question is the phase. A signal on its own does not have a phase unless you provide some reference signal to compare it to. Generally, this comparison signal Is Implied by the context of your particular situation. When you decompose a periodic signal into components, however, it is almost always implied that the phase of each component is in reference to the fundamental component (So the fundamental has phase O. Hill the others have phases referenced to that). This is done specifically so that each component will combine to create the original signal. Define fundamental frequency. What Is attenuation? The fundamental frequency, often referred to simply as the fundamental, is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform. In terms of a superposition of sinusoids The fundamental frequency Is the lowest frequency sinusoidal in the sum. In some contexts, the fundamental is usually abbreviated as of (or IF), indicating the lowest frequency counting from zero. In other contexts, it is more common to abbreviate It as FL, the first harmonic. The second harmonic Is then if = off, etc. In this context, the zeros harmonic would be O Hz’s. )All sinusoidal and many non-sinusoidal waveforms are periodic, which Is to say they repeat exactly over time. Describes the signal completely. We can show a waveform is periodic by finding some period T for which the following equation is true: Reduction of signal strength during transmission. Attenuation is the opposite of amplification, and is normal when a signal is sent from one point to another. Describe the components of optical fiber cable. An optical fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made of glass (silica) or plastic, slightly hickey than a human hair. It functions as a waveguide, or â€Å"light pipe†, to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so that they may be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in confined spaces. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers. Indicate some significant differences between broadcast radio and microwave. FL Radio is about 50 Kilohertz to 400 Kilohertz. AM Broadcast Band Radio is about 500 Kilohertz to 1600 Kilohertz. And microwave begins around 2000 Mesh and goes up thru. Some frequency ranges like 26,000 Mesh in allocated bands, depending upon the type of service you’re operating. What is the difference between diffraction and scattering? Diffraction is a phenomenon observed only in waves, but scattering is a phenomenon observed in both waves and particles. Diffraction is a property of propagation of waves, whereas scattering is a property of wave interactions. Diffraction can be taken as evidence for the wave nature of light. Some forms of scattering (Compton scattering) can be taken as evidence for the particle nature of light. List and briefly define important factors that can be used in evaluating or comparing the various digital-to-digital encoding techniques. Digital signals don’t have large ranges, nor do they reflect constant activity. Digital signals have very few values. Each signal is unique from a previous digital value and unique from one to come. In effect, a digital signal is a snapshot of a condition and does not represent continual movement In comparing analog and digital signals, advantages lie on either end of the spectrum. Analog signals suffer far less from attenuation over long distances. This rather makes sense. Since digital data can only be a 1 or O, what happens when a signal becomes so weak that it is hard to distinguish between each state? Sometimes we Just can’t. Analog devices, on the other hand, are equipped to handle the infinite values between 1 and O. Digital devices are a lot less sophisticated, meaning that they are fairly easy to manufacture and cost-effective. In addition, bandwidths than analog systems do. What function does a modem perform? The function of a modem is Modulation and Demodulation mean to turn data into a format that can be transmitted via an audio link such as a phone line. A modem at the other side of the connection answers the phone and converts the audio back into sable data. This is why if you lift a phone while the modem is in use there appears to be random noise on the line, this noise is the data in audio What JAM? JAM stands for Quadrate Amplitude Modulation. It’s a modulation scheme that transmits data by changing the amplitude of two carrier waves. The two carrier waves are out of phase with each other by 90 degrees. Digital Cable uses JAM to transmit the majority of their signals. Two major JAM schemes are GAMMA and GAMMA. GAMMA contains data throughput around 28 Mbps, where GAMMA has data throughput of 38. 8 Mbps. How to cite Following Assignment, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

The Opportunities of Guerrilla Marketing free essay sample

And in alternative media they are finding fresh approaches they are looking for. â€Å"Yesterday’s innovation has become today’s expectation; so the need for new media vehicles never lets up. † This is why the company GoCard Advertising in New York City, USA, is specialized in a type of marketing called guerrilla marketing, a form of alternative media. In this essay I will discuss new ways of reaching consumers in a non-traditional way and get to the bottom of the questions: â€Å"What are the opportunities of guerrilla marketing? † and How effective are new ways of guerrilla provisions in reaching consumers? † I would like to mention that a lot of the information given in this essay is not based on foreign figures or analysis, but on observation and conversation with people working in the alternative media business. The result of research has shown that there is plenty of literature about guerrilla marketing available, however, it mainly discusses how to carry out guerrilla marketing rather than showing the history, advantages or effects of it. Please keep that in mind while reading this essay. Guerrilla marketing vs. traditional marketing I would like to explain the term of guerrilla marketing by the following quote: â€Å"Guerrilla derives from the Spanish language and means small battle. Guerrilla warfare is a weapon of the weak against a military majority. It is about not revealing oneself as a soldier to prevent a direct confrontation with the enemy but ambushing them later on. † This points out the strong advantage of being unnoticed as advertising and therefore finding easy access to consumers’ minds. Guerrilla marketing is all about creating and executing unconventional, imaginative and innovative marketing programs that convey maximum impact and convince consumers to buy a certain product. Promotions are very cost effective and it is the main characteristic of guerrilla marketing to operate on a low budget, but still be remarkable. It is a great opportunity for small companies to get attention from their target audience and standing out before the market leaders. A recent example is a GoGorilla Media campaign for the new internet search engine â€Å"LookSmart†. It is fairly new and did not have the means for big and expensive advertising; hence the company hired GoGorilla Media to promote their product at the 2007 Search Engine Strategies Convention in New York City where internet giants like Google and Yahoo were also present. Approximately twenty models and actors were hired to stage a fake protest in front of the Hilton in New York City, where the convention took place. Later on the group of demonstrators went into the building and marched through the convention halls handing out Starbucks gift cards, buttons and their own constitution â€Å"LookSmart† had come up with. This campaign caused a lot of attention among the convention-goers and the goal of reaching the target group and getting them to consider small businesses too, had been fulfilled. Significant about the guerrilla concept is, that the target audience is often left unaware they have been marketed to. Because of this, guerrilla marketing is sometimes called undercover or stealth marketing. All in all it is about delivering a sales message when people are not anticipating it, which is in an unexpected environment, such as a restaurant, through an unexpected vehicle like branded napkins. Traditional marketing is known as marketing broadcast to everyone by print media, such as advertisements in newspapers and magazines, TV commercials or radio. But this market saturated over the last past years. â€Å"Marketing today is not the same as it was in the 1960s and 1970s. Today there are products to satisfy almost every need. Customer’s needs are more than satisfied. They are hypersatisfied. According to this statement there is no call for necessaries anymore – the needs of consumers are fulfilled and now advertisers try to find ways to influence people’s minds to create a need for a product that nobody needs but many people then want. Another aspect of traditional marketing is the media overflow. People are exposed to hundreds of advertisements a day and to compensate all the information, consumers block out most of the sales messages they see. The reason for that is that consumers value messages less because those messages no longer solve their current problems. And while the goals of guerrilla marketing and traditional marketing are the same that is to convince people to buy a product, the means are different. People have gotten good at blocking out mainstream media messages. As a result there is need to invent ways to get into people’s heads. That’s where guerrilla marketing gets into the picture. 3 The pros and cons of guerrilla marketing Guerrilla marketing is controversial. For the advertising industry it is a little revolution and it is more and more replenishing traditional media which had its peak in the last twenty years. It is a way for companies to step out of the dark of traditional mass marketing and into the light of guerrilla marketing which, if done correctly, has a short but big impact on the target group. For advocates it causes debates about the ethics of guerrilla marketing methods and legality of certain campaigns but supporters of this movement insist on the effectiveness of guerrilla marketing. In the following I will discuss the chances and risks of guerrilla marketing and the effects it has on their audience. 3. 1 Chances of guerrilla marketing One of the most convincing reasons for choosing guerrilla marketing methods is that it is low budget operated. Companies spend hundreds of thousands of dollars every year for advertising like newspaper advertisements and TV commercials that is hardly noticed by the target audience. Take the example given in the book â€Å"Purple Cow† by Seth Godin: â€Å"One morning [†¦], I interrupted a few people who were reading the Journal over breakfast. [†¦] I asked them if they could name just two of the companies that had run full-page ads. Not one person could. Then I took one of the ads, folded down the bottom with the logo, and asked the Journal readers which company ran the ad. No idea. Finally, I asked them the million-dollar question (literally). Had they ever requested more information about a product because they’d seen a full-page ad in the Journal? You can probably guess the answer. † This is not a prestigious examination, but companies should face the fact, that this small example is possibly very close to the truth – that potential buyers block out most of the advertisements they get swamped with every day. So instead of splurging money for barely noticed traditional media, companies start taking new ways of reaching consumers. Small companies can spend a minimum amount of money and get the maximum impact. For instance the New York Department of Health which hands out free condoms every year to prevent an increase of AIDS has done a guerrilla marketing campaign with branded NYC Condoms in 2007. The condoms were black with â€Å"NYC Condom† written in Subway-style letters on it. They were handed out at several high-traffic Subway stations all over Manhattan and also placed in various bars and restaurants. The following two days there were articles in the newspaper about the branded condoms and people were actually selling a couple of these condoms on e-bay. This campaign had a lot of free publicity, caught the target audiences’ attention and therefore achieved the goal to awaken awareness of AIDS in New York City. The low budget characteristic holds another aspect. Small companies can afford to do marketing now in a way they could not do before. They don’t have to spend enormous amounts of money anymore to get recognition from their target group. The condom campaign is also a good example for another chance of guerrilla marketing. Because it is something out of the ordinary, something spectacular, one is not used to seeing all the time, the news about it spread fast. Also very important to consider is that people love giveaways and hardly anyone walks by without taking a freebie like the NYC Condom. With this simple action – taking something – the person is already involved and will think about the product he received. Furthermore guerrilla campaigns are unique. No campaign equals another which makes it special and differentiates itself from traditional marketing methods. A TV commercial is still a TV commercial and does only change within a certain range like the design for example. But guerrilla campaigns are always new and refreshing. Catching people by surprise is a pro as well. People do not have their defenses up as usually for traditional media like newspaper advertisements. This means, that it is easier for the advertiser to get into people’s heads and make them think about the product promoted in a campaign. Since guerrilla marketing is considered Out-Of-Home marketing, meaning everything which is not broadcast, the chances of reaching potential customers are big. When showing a TV commercial people can just change the channel and the chances of being recognized are lower than ever, but with guerrilla campaigns there is no â€Å"changing channels†. You can either reach a broad target group with, for example, outdoor campaigns where models hand out samples like the NYC Condoms, or one can specify the target group as much as needed for the product and, build up on this, find the perfect venue types where potential customers linger. With the NYC Condom campaign a broad target group was selected and reached through handing out the condoms at high traffic subway stations and bars. A campaign for a new credit card for Wal-Mart with Visa wanted to target only African Americans; accordingly convenience stores in highly populated African American neighborhoods were chosen to get GoMoney, US Dollar bills with removable stickers of the product, on it. 3. 2 Risks of guerrilla marketing Guerrilla marketing not only has positive aspects. Precisely because it is low budget operated and more companies can afford it, it has the downside of perhaps too many businesses trying to get on the guerrilla train and the consumers might be fed up with it soon. Guerrilla campaigns are often a one ime occurrence. It is not likely to happen again in the exact same way, thus the creativity has no borders which can be very hard on the marketers. They have to be as creative as they can, demanding a lot from the individual. Moreover it might be difficult to reach specific target groups such as â€Å"TV-shoppers† or â€Å"couch potatoes† who are likely to stay at home and watch TV rather than go outside. In this case traditional TV commercials will work more effectively. Besides those risks there is one aspect that has to be considered very serious before doing a guerrilla campaign: the legal aspect. . The legal aspect Before realizing a guerrilla campaign there is the legal aspect to consider. In the United States there are different laws for every state which makes it hard to tell what campaign can be pulled off in which state. A recent example explains how difficult it is to discern between legal and illegal: In Boston, Massachusetts there were â€Å"[†¦] electronic light boards depicting a middle-finger-waving moon man that triggered repeated bomb scares around Boston on Wednesday and prompted the closure of bridges and a stretch of the Charles River. Meanwhile, police and prosecutors vented their anger at Turner Broadcasting System Inc. , [†¦], which said the battery-operated light boards were aimed at promoting the late-night Adult Swim cartoon Aqua Teen Hunger Force. † This incident was on the news all over the US and Europe. However, this example is an exception. Most of the time guerrilla campaigns are not as dramatic. The company IBM had a campaign with street stenciling, which means putting designs on sidewalks with washable spray-paint. It turned out that the paint was not easy to remove thus â€Å"IBM has agreed to pay San Francisco a $100,000 fine and almost $20,000 in related costs to clean up after the companys Peace, Love and Linux ad campaign, in which the companys ad firm spray-painted logos on sidewalks and streets around the city† . IBM only had to pay a fine because the painting was still seen after months but usually legal measures like this are not given. GoGorilla Media has various products called â€Å"On the Edge† meaning that they are close to illegal. Some of these are, for instance GoProjection and GoMoney. The projection is done at nighttime at high traffic buildings such as arenas or stadiums. The owners of the buildings are not asked for permission, so when police arrives the causers have to be gone quickly. GoMoney are US Dollar bills with stickers of the advertiser on it. Those banknotes are placed in circulation at targeted venues. Putting stickers on US money is usually illegal but GoGorilla Media uses stickers that are removable. There are many ways to get around the law but sometimes â€Å"companies have to take a risk in order to be heard or seen by their target audience† . The legal aspect will always be a matter to consider when doing a guerrilla campaign but as seen, there are ways to get around it. The worst that can happen to the advertisers is that they have to pay high fines. 3. 4 Effects guerrilla marketing has on their audience One unbeatable advantage of guerrilla marketing campaigns is the â€Å"Wow-effect† which does not work for traditional marketing. One campaign done by GoGorilla Media was at the Boston Marathon in 2006. Models were placed at each mile with banners that had uplifting slogans for the runners on it, promoting Nike. At the end of the marathon there was a big marching band also promoting Nike. The marathon was actually sponsored by Adidas but most onlookers thought that Nike sponsored the marathon because of the high presence of the company’s promotion banners . The bystanders liked the marching band and thought it was a â€Å"cool thing†. This is what you call the â€Å"Wow-effect†. Spectators and participants of the marathon were surprised to find a marching band and cheerful banners along the route and they liked it. They were not aware that it was an advertising campaign and enjoyed the happening. This example can be projected on many other guerrilla campaigns where the audience is caught by surprise, which creates a comforting effect for them. This leads to the next effect – the telling about it. People are always longing for sensations and guerrilla marketing plays with this characteristic of human beings. Thus they are likely to tell their family and friends about such a campaign when they see it. A further effect which often happens is identifying with the product. A good example to make this circumstance clear is GoCard with its postcard advertising. Postcards are placed in venues like bars or restaurants most likely close to the restrooms. The cards are designed to catch someone’s eye. People see it, think it is awesome and take it. That is the first action. Nobody forces them to take it; they can decide and pick whatever they like. People choose cards since they like the design, the witty slogan or pictures and take it because they can identify with it. Someone who likes animals would not take a card with a fur advertisement. All the above effects get the audience involved with thinking about the product advertised in a campaign, or on a postcard. In many cases this involvement leads to buying the advertised product, respectively dealing and thinking about the promotion, like the NYC Condom campaign intended to encourage AIDS awareness. Those statements are merely subjective since there are no facts or appraisals about the effects of guerrilla marketing. This field is not yet explored for its effectiveness in view of the fact that it is a rather new movement in the marketing and advertising business. 4 Word-of-mouth marketing as a side effect of guerrilla marketing The chances and risks as well as the effects of guerrilla marketing are already discussed. Another aspect which was mentioned before should not be underestimated: Word-of-mouth. It is indeed a form of marketing of its own, but with guerrilla marketing it found an additional way of expressing itself. Word-of-mouth marketing is based on people spreading the news about a certain product. They are usually called early adopters. If they like the product, they recommend it to their family and friends. A perfect example is digital cameras. â€Å"Digital cameras are well on their way to replacing film cameras. This shift was not caused by great ad campaigns from the camera companies. Instead, it is the direct result of early adopters successfully selling cameras to their friends. † Word-of mouth marketing is hard to get and rare. Lately there has been a new form of it, stealth marketing. Consumers are being paid to try out new products and they are obliged to tell others about it. But why should companies reach for such drastic methods when they can get the same effect with guerrilla marketing? In chapter 3. 1 the NYC Condom campaign was mentioned. The fact that it got free publicity; it was mentioned in various newspapers two days in a row, and was also traded on e-bay, shows that people were talking about it. Accordingly Word-of-mouth was created. This does not happen with every single guerrilla campaign but with this being said, Word-of-mouth can be a side effect. 5 Differences between Germany and USA GoMedia is an American business which sometimes operates international. The company exists since1994, which shows that there is a market for guerrilla marketing in the United States. But to what extend does it work for German companies too? Following a conversation with the founder of GoMedia, Alan Wolan, who worked in Berlin for a couple of years, the German market is about two years behind the American market concerning advertising issues.